Hypertensive crisis in children: causes and emergency care

Hypertensive crisis in children is a sharp increase in blood pressure by more than 20% compared to normal values ​​for humans. Such a state can be faced by children of any age. Most often, hypertensive crises are observed in adolescence with a tendency to increase blood pressure.



  • 1Causes of Crisis Development
  • 2Symptoms of Crisis
  • 3Urgent care
  • 4Treatment of hypertension in children
  • 5Crisis Prevention

Causes of Crisis Development

Causes of hypertensive crisis in children - arterial hypertension of various nature. They can be caused by:

  • borne diseases;
  • taking certain medications;
  • excessive body weight;
  • endocrine disorders;
  • overwork and stress.

Hypertensive crisis can cause both internal pathologies and external factors

Some cerebrovascular diseases can lead to the development of hypertension. Postponed meningitis or encephalitis may cause an increase in blood pressure in a child. Also, children with kidney dysfunction experience this problem.


Some endocrine diseases lead to an increase in press

ure. Children may experience disruption of the thyroid gland, central nervous system diseases and autonomic dysfunction. All these conditions provoke an increase in vascular tone and a jump in blood pressure. Children with type 1 diabetes often face hypertension at a young age.

Increased blood pressure may be the result of prolonged therapy with glucocorticosteroids. Adolescents are more likely to increase blood pressure. At this age, many first try alcohol. The first unsuccessful experience of drinking strong alcohol can lead to the development of hypertensive crisis.

A fairly common cause of the crisis in children and adolescents are stress, psycho-emotional stress and severe fatigue. These conditions can be caused by problems in the school. The nervous system of adolescents is characterized by excessive excitability, therefore, stresses at this age are observed quite often and are accompanied by symptoms of increased pressure.

The risk group for developing a crisis is also children with an overweight. Unfortunately, obesity in younger preschool age has become a serious problem in recent years, which threatens the health of the younger generation. Children with overweight usually lead a sedentary lifestyle and abuse heavy food. All this weakens the cardiovascular and nervous system, which can lead to a rapid increase in pressure and the development of the crisis.


Full children - at risk

Symptoms of Crisis

Hypertensive crises in children with hypertension are of three types - hypokinetic, hyperkinetic and associated with a violation of the water-salt balance.

Hypokinetic crises develop against a background of disruption of the nervous system. This increase in blood pressure occurs due to severe stress, emotional shock, changes in atmospheric pressure, or physical overwork. Characteristic symptoms:

  • pressure increase up to 140 mm Hg;
  • general deterioration of health;
  • the appearance of flies in sight;
  • headache;
  • pallor of the face.

Hyperkinetic crises or crises in children are observed over the age of 12 years. They are associated with an increase in the production of adrenaline on the background of stress.

If hypokinetic crises are characterized by fatigue, apathy and loss of strength, a hyperkinetic crisis shows a feeling of anxiety and panic, an increasing irritability. This form of crisis is characterized by a sudden increase in symptoms.

Signs of a hyperkinetic crisis:

  • redness of the face;
  • feeling your own heartbeat;
  • increased heart rate;
  • dyspnea;
  • chest pain.

Symptoms of this crisis quickly deteriorate, however, and quickly pass. The duration of the crisis rarely exceeds 8-14 hours.

Hyperkinetic crisis is rapidly developing and is also passing quickly

Abuse of salt can cause a violation of the water-salt balance. The result is an increase in blood pressure to 130-140 mm Hg. Symptoms of a crisis of this type:

  • prostration;
  • pallor of the skin;
  • headache;
  • dizziness;
  • nausea;
  • weakness in the arms and legs;
  • strong thirst.

The child drinks a lot of water, but because of the excess of salt there is no urination. Such a crisis can persist for 3-4 days.

Urgent care

In hypertensive conditions, the first emergency aid for children with hypertensive crisis should be dealt with by parents. First of all, the baby must be put on the bed. To facilitate well-being and improve breathing under the waist, a pillow should be placed. This will ensure the normalization of blood circulation.

Preparations for children can not be given. Reducing blood pressure in infants should be gradually, only a doctor can do this, so you need to urgently call an ambulance.

Waiting for the arrival of specialists, parents should distract the baby. When hyperkinetic crisis should try to calm the child. You can do breathing exercises together to normalize breathing. It is necessary to open the windows so that fresh air penetrates into the room.

At a hypokinetic crisis with the kid it is necessary to talk constantly. It is important not to allow the development of panic and stress.

In the rest, parents should trust doctors. Upon arrival at the hospital, the toddler will make a series of tests necessary to assess the general condition of the body. On the basis of surveys, a decision will be made on methods of arresting the crisis. The length of stay in a hospital depends on the type of crisis and on average takes from two to five days.


Treatment of hypertension in children

As for adult hypertension, the child is extremely important therapeutic nutrition

At high arterial pressure, non-drug treatment is practiced in children. It consists of regular physical activity, a special diet and no stress.

A child with high blood pressure should eat often, but little by little. The basis of the diet consists of fruits, vegetables, cereals, lean meat and fish. Very useful sour-milk products, they need to be consumed daily. Sweet must be limited, like any heavy and fatty food. The child should drink compotes and freshly squeezed juices, carbonated drinks and tea are prohibited.

The consumption of salt is necessarily limited, and measures are taken to restore the water-salt balance. It is necessary to comply with drinking regimen and monitor urination. If a child drinks a lot, but rarely goes to the toilet, you should cut the daily amount of salt by half.

In adolescents, there are abnormalities in the functioning of the nervous system due to the rapid growth of the body. The nervous system simply does not keep pace with the growth rate of internal organs, so stress, apathy and sleep disturbances are often observed. To restore the nervous system, you should consult your doctor about taking light sedatives. Of the folk remedies, they use tinctures of motherwort, valerian or pion, or decoctions of these plants. Dosage is selected by the doctor individually.

Sports activities or just outdoor games are simply necessary

Children are required to exercise. With hypertension, children should do morning exercises every day. It is useful for a kid to walk a lot in the fresh air. If possible, it is recommended to enroll in swimming or simply visit the pool several times in week, since this kind of physical activity positively affects the nervous and cardiovascular system.


Drug relief hypertensive crisis is allowed only in a hospital or ambulance. Drugs from children should be used with extreme caution, as a mistake in dosage can lead to the development of arterial hypotension, which can lead to syncope and impaired circulation of the brain.

It is important to remember: for the treatment of crises in children, you should not use strong drugs designed to reduce blood pressure in adult patients. Such therapy can lead to the development of dangerous consequences for the health of the baby.

Crisis Prevention

If a child is prone to increased blood pressure, it is necessary to completely revise his lifestyle. Do not allow the recurrence of crises will help:

  • absence of stress;
  • balanced diet;
  • regular exercise;
  • healthy sleep;
  • daily regime.

The cause for stress in children can become too difficult homework, an unfavorable atmosphere in the house, hidden fears and complexes. In time to identify possible problems and do everything possible to eliminate them - this is the primary task of parents. It is especially difficult to normalize the nervous system in adolescents. If you can not overcome stress yourself and protect the child from psychoemotional stresses, you should seek medical help. A child may be prescribed mild sedatives, a teenager with severe stress - drugs and psychotherapy. Timely treatment and compliance with preventive measures will literally "outgrow" a difficult period and prevent the development of hypertension in adulthood.

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