- The First Vitamin
- How many groups are there?
- Can vitamins be dangerous?
- Vitamin A (Retinol)
- Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
- Vitamin E (tocopherol)
- Vitamin D
- Vitamin K
Vitamins are special compounds that enter the human body together with food. They are extremely useful for providing vital functions, metabolism and organ productivity. Each vitamin is endowed with a special property. No products were found that simultaneously contained all the substances required for life. Let's look at the most interesting facts about vitamins.
The First Vitamin
The first was found and studied vitamin C. It was a rather long period that served as a remedy for scurvy for sailors in long swings. People learned about it thanks to fresh products: fruits and vegetables. In 1911, K. Funk produced a small amount of a crystal-type powder. Only a few grams of this substance was enough to overcome the disease "Beri-Beri" (a disease caused by eating the purified rice) in a short period of time.
After some time Funk was awarded the Nobel Prize for his discovery. He called his new element "vitamin". From the Latin language this term is translated as "life". It is from then on that all the substances necessary for man began to be called vitamins, and for an easy classification, they should be assigned letters of the alphabet.
How many groups are there?
At the moment, 13 species are open, each of which is vital for proper functioning of the body systems. This includes vitamins:
- group B,
- fat soluble A, D, E, K.
The difference between the elements is soluble in different media (Water and Fat). Fat-soluble are characterized by the fact that they are deposited in tissues, while water, with the exception of B12, is practically devoid of such a feature. Their shortage causes a lack of substances much faster than the deficit of fat, a person must receive them without interruption.
What is the importance of vitamins for a healthy body. They play a decisive role in many important processes of the body, as a result of which the absorbed food turns into energy. They contribute to the maintenance of some functions of the system. Your life is unacceptable without useful elements. This is particularly noticeable when there is a shortage. Deficit responds to the integrity of all organs and tissues, as well as processes. The shortage over a long time interval leads to poor performance, to a poor body condition, and then to a lethal outcome.
Can the body reproduce itself vitamins. The human body is not able to produce them on its own, but in limited cases synthesizes in a small volume.
Why does B have so many names? As a result of the discovery of vitamin A, the following became B. But then it became clear that not one substance was identified, but a whole group of various vitamins. Followed by the names - B1, B2 and others. Today group B contains 8 items. Some substances that previously mistakenly belonged to B were excluded from the group, it was found that the designations of these elements are incorrect, and the products themselves can be harmful to the body. Vitamins, which were discovered later, were given new names.
Can vitamins be dangerous?
As a rule, people do not get all the elements necessary for life in sufficient quantity. For example, in a tropical region, people suffer from a deficit of D and B. The northern part of the world lacks A and C. It was proved that excessive absorption of vitamins A, B and D - this is dangerous for humans. But B2, C, E, nicotinic acid and K can be obtained immensely. If to simplify, it means that eating vegetables, fruits and their juices even in large volumes is safe for health.
Also, if we talk about norms, situations are different. Sometimes a certain substance is required more, another time - less. Each organism has its own individual needs.
Vitamin A (Retinol)
Retinol was discovered in 1931, and already in 1974 its production was started in a synthetic way. It is found only in food of animal origin. Vegetable food is endowed with provitamins A, which after entering the large intestine are converted into A. Retinol is very useful, but it easily disintegrates under the sun (ultraviolet) and is very afraid of heat treatment.
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
A lot of world scientists fought for the right of the discoverer of ascorbic acid. But the "father" of vitamin C is the scientist from Hungary - Albert Saint-Györdi. He in 1928 singled out this element from cabbage leaf, orange and red pepper. But another, already an American scientist, Charles Glen King went much further. After his experiments in 1932, he confirmed that the new substance is ascorbic acid, and then determined its exact structure.
By the way, if people had not changed, having lost the abilities of their ancestors, they could, like most animals, synthesize it themselves. But, alas, we have to use this important element together with food.
Vitamin E (tocopherol)
This substance is famous for the content of a large number of natural antioxidants. It is sometimes called an extract of beauty and youth. In the distant 1922, scientists, having studied the diet of animals, realized which element has a beneficial effect on their reproductivity. The same applies to people, the "potion of fertility" was assigned the fifth letter of the alphabet.
The main "participants" of group D are D2 and D3. It is found in animal food. In the body, it comes not only during meals, but also when taking a "sun bath". But do not confuse natural sunlight and solarium lamps, with a SPA sunburn vitamin D is not absorbed. He is responsible for the exchange of calcium and phosphorus, affects the absorption of A and magnesium, helps build new bones, normalizes cardiac activity.
The element has received the name from the English "coagulation" - in the translation "coagulation". Its main role in the body is to be responsible for blood clotting and maintenance in the form of vessels. It helps to prevent cancer, tuberculosis, and in a team with A and C also protects against colds. The bulk of this substance is produced by intestinal bacteria.
The immune system of many people, often due to a number of factors, is reduced. Therefore, for prevention, you should monitor your condition and take enough vitamins with your food. If you regularly eat only healthy food, then your body will be safe for many years..