- Functions of nicotinic acid
- The norm and deficiency of vitamin PP
- Top 10 vegetable products rich in vitamin B3
- Recipes of dishes with high content of nicotinic acid
- Peculiarities of vitamin PP consumption
Nicotinic acid is a vitamin that enters the body with food, and is also synthesized in the liver from the amino acid tryptophan. In the human body, the compound is converted into nicotinamide. The substance was discovered 100 years ago by the American epidemiologist Joseph Goldberger as a "warning pellagra" (Pellagra Preventing) remedy. Hence the other name of the compound - vitamin PP. That's not all. So, all the "names" of vitamin PP - nicotinic acid, niacin, B3.
Functions of nicotinic acid
Vitamin PP is a participant in dozens of biochemical processes in the body. The compound promotes the formation of enzymes necessary for cellular respiration. The substance stimulates carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism. After cleavage in the liver, it is excreted by the kidneys as a metabolite.
Why do I need this vitamin?
- Provides normal operation of the brain.
- Responsible for the usefulness of vision.
- Supports the health of hair, nails, skin, oral mucosa.
- Lowers blood pressure, cholesterol levels in tissues and blood.
- Prevents the development of cardiovascular failure.
- Prevents the transformation of normal cells into cancerous cells.
- Opposes the attacks of free radicals.
- Stabilizes the level of sugar in the blood.
- Participates in the functioning of the digestive system.
- Improves blood circulation.
Vitamin PP is used as a medicine. In diabetes mellitus, it prevents the destruction of the pancreas. Taking the drug can reduce the dose of insulin administered. Nicotinic acid is included in the treatment of arthritis, as it helps to reduce pain, improves joint mobility. Vitamin B3 has a mild sedative effect, so it is prescribed for nervous disorders caused by prolonged stress, alcoholism.
The norm and deficiency of vitamin PP
For normal life, an adult needs to consume 20 mg of nicotinic acid per day. For pregnant and lactating women, the figure is higher - 25 mg. Infants the required amount of vitamin B3 (2-6 mg) is obtained with the mother's milk. Children up to three years of age need 8 mg of nicotinic acid, up to eight years - 10 mg, to thirteen years - 12 mg. Teenagers need vitamin PP in the same amount as adults.
To the deficiency of nicotinic acid in the body leads to the use of alcoholic beverages. Lack of this vitamin can be observed with an unbalanced diet. The disadvantage of the element also arises in cases when its consumption sharply increases. This occurs in conditions of physical and mental overstrain, prolonged intoxication, digestive tract disorders.
Vitamin PP is needed in large quantities, if you work at high or low temperatures, sweat profusely. Systematic shortage of nicotinic acid leads to pellagra - an avitaminous state, accompanied by diarrhea and dermatitis. Disease involves motor movement disorder, limb paralysis and dementia.
The following symptoms may indicate a deficiency of nicotinic acid:
- apathy and fatigue;
- causeless weight loss, loss of appetite;
- pain and twisting of the head;
- red spots on the face, neck, hands;
- redness of the mucous membrane of the mouth, cracks in the tongue;
- irritability, aggression;
- decreased immunity;
- dryness and pallor of the skin;
- difficulties with falling asleep at night;
- frequent constipation and diarrhea.
Top 10 vegetable products rich in vitamin B3
With vegetarianism and raw food, you need to make sure that there is enough vitamin PP in the diet. In some cases, when there is a prolonged lack of nicotinic acid, special preparations may be required.
However, prescribe medicinal supplements should the doctor, since PP vitamin, obtained in excess, is also dangerous to health. It leads to the appearance of an itchy rash on the face and neck, fainting. Long-term use of the drug may cause liver dystrophy.
The best option is to adjust the diet, including in the diet foods rich in nicotinic acid. The main plant sources of vitamin PP are as follows.
- Dried mushrooms. To obtain a daily norm of nicotinic acid, an adult needs to eat 24 grams of dry boletus or 32 grams of boletus per day.
- Peanut flour contains 3 mg of niacin. Cover the daily need for nicotinic acid can 105 g "peanuts" or 150 grams of paste.
- Rice bran (60 grams per day) can be added to salads, pastries or soups. Vitamin PP in them is present in an amount of 3 mg.
- Dry spirulina contains 2 mg. Thus, a day should eat 70 g of seaweed.
- Pistachios cover the daily requirement of 150 g. Cedar nuts and fried sunflower seeds need 240 g. Cashew - 280 g.
- Fresh mushrooms. Vitamin PP in the amount of 1, mg is present in 100 g of boletus, mg of russula, mg of champignon.
- Wheat contains, mg of nicotinic acid, bread 3 mg, sprouted grains mg.
- Green peas are also rich in niacin. The recommended amount of the product for children is 100-180 g, adults - 300 g.
- Sesame (100 g) contains, mg of nicotinic acid. Sesame seeds can be added to main courses.
- Buckwheat groats (100 g) delivers to the body, mg of vitamin.
Mediated sources of nicotinic acid are products rich in tryptophan. These include peanuts, almonds, cashews, soybeans, pine nuts, sunflower seeds. Of 100 g of these products the body receives 300-750 mg of amino acid, which in the liver is converted to 5-1, mg of vitamin B3.
Recipes of dishes with high content of nicotinic acid
- Pumpkin cream soup
15 g of dried white mushrooms soak in a glass of water for a quarter of an hour. 500 g of pumpkin flesh cut into cubes. Grind one onion. Water with mushrooms pour into a saucepan. Cook half an hour on medium heat. Pumpkin with onion for 5 minutes fry in olive oil. Put the mushrooms. Add enough water to the broth to make 200 ml. In the boiling broth throw the fried vegetables. Tear for 5 minutes. Cooked mushrooms lightly fry. Ready soup to blend in a blender. Serve with mushrooms and fried pumpkin seeds.
- Brown rice with green peas
In the sauté pan, lightly grind the chopped onions (head) and champignons cut into thin plates (300 g). Add a pinch of cumin. If desired, season with salt and pepper. Pour 100 g of brown rice into the saucepan and add water. After boiling, reduce the heat to a minimum. Boil the rice until ready. Throw 450 g of green peas. Stir everything and cook for 2 more minutes. Add fresh basil and remove from the plate.
- Salad from chardilly and champignons
Slice the young zucchini (100 g) into cubes. Grind fresh mushrooms (100 g) with plates. Mix zucchini with mushrooms. Add chopped leaf beet (50 g). If necessary, salt. Season with olive oil.
Peculiarities of vitamin PP consumption
Correcting nutrition, it should be borne in mind that nicotinic acid in cereals has a tightly bound form. Naturally, this complicates the process of digesting the body's vitamin. Another thing is legumes. In peanuts, peas, beans, lentils, chickpeas and soy, vitamin PP is in an easily digestible form. Absorption of nicotinic acid by the body is hampered by malabsorption - a chronic disorder of digestion, transportation and absorption of nutrients in the intestine. Disturbance in the absorption of vitamin B3 is observed in the elderly.
With regard to the process of obtaining nicotinic acid from tryptophan, the reaction requires a sufficient number of elements such as iron, pyridoxine, riboflavin. Vitamin B2 is found in brewer's yeast, almonds, mushrooms, broccoli, white cabbage, buckwheat. To plant products rich in iron, include dried fruits, vegetables, nuts, dark greens, legumes.
Sources of vitamin B6 are unrefined cereals, avocados, bananas, carrots, spinach.
It should be noted that nicotinic acid is a fairly stable compound. Vitamin PP does not lose its properties when interacting with acids and alkalis, drying, freezing, long-term storage. Only heat treatment is destructive for him. In the process of frying up to 40% niacin is destroyed. Loss of vitamin PP will be less if you cook foods in a small amount of water..