- 1Variety of examinations
5How is it conducted?
- 5.1Peculiarities of holding in women and men
- 5.2Features of kidney cystography in children
- 6Complications and consequences
If there is a suspicion of the presence of diseases of the urinary tract and the patient's organs, they are sent to cystography of the kidneys and bladder. This type of diagnostic study helps to see the pathology in the functioning of the kidneys and other organs, which is important for determining the treatment regimen. What are the types of diagnosis, which symptoms are an indication for the procedure, and how to properly prepare to get the most accurate result?
Variety of examinations
Depending on the method of diagnosis, the following types of renal cystography are distinguished:
- Ascending, in which contrast is introduced into the bladder. Before this patient, the urea must be completely emptied. When the body is filled with contrast, the doctor produces a series of pictures, the urine is emptied and the last, control photograph is performed.
- Descending, in which the contrast is injected intravenously, then it fills the kidney tissues, penetrates into the urine and moves along the urinary ducts into the kidneys and urea. To ensure that the substance can fully fill the bladder, it is necessary that at least 45-50 minutes pass, that inconveniences and affects the speed of the diagnosis, so doctors prefer a rising method.
- Mikstatsionnaya cystography, in which a series of images is made during the process of urination. Before this patient, a contrast is introduced into the urea, when the organ is completely filled, the doctor takes a picture. Then the person needs to emptied and in the process a control photograph is taken. If the pathology of the bladder and ureters develops, then the contrast will not be in the urea itself, but in the urinary tract.
Cystography is indicated for patients with suspected pathology in the functioning of the urogenital system and kidneys. First of all, the X-ray is performed with suspicion of the presence of tumors on the tissues of the kidneys, urinary or urinary ducts. Cystography is also performed with congenital developmental anomalies, with chronic kidney disease and organs of the genitourinary system, with urolithiasis and with complicated infectious diseases on kidney.Back to contents
In the presence of acute inflammatory processes, the doctor chooses the descending method of diagnosis, in which contraindications are much less.
Contraindications primarily relate to the ascending method of kidney cystography, since for its implementation, a catheter should be inserted through urethra in the bladder, and this brings difficulties when the person acute inflammation of the tissues of the urea and kidneys, the urethra or the prostate glands. This is dangerous and in most cases leads to the development of more serious infectious inflammation. Cystography is contraindicated in people with urine tests showing the presence of blood inclusions, since such a pathology distorts the diagnosis data and the doctor can incorrectly determine the diagnosis. Contrast substance also affects the composition of urine, and it is difficult to identify hematuria.Back to contents
In the process of preparing for cystography, there are basically no restrictions on diet and drinking regimen. 2-3 days before the proposed procedure it is desirable to limit the use of spicy dishes and seasonings, to refuse drinks and food that could affect the color of urine. If a person is prone to allergies, you need to warn the doctor about it, because in the process of cystography a contrast will be applied, which can cause an allergic shock. It is necessary to warn the doctor about taking medications. If there are specific recommendations, the doctor will voice them, and the patient needs to observe them impeccably.Back to contents
How is it conducted?
Before you start cystography, a person takes off all the metal accessories, the mobile phone and other devices must be left in another room. The patient will need to urinate, then he lies down on the table, after which the lab technician enters the catheter into the urethra and fills the bladder with contrast. Then the catheter needs to be squeezed so that the liquid does not leave the urea.
Then the lab technician produces a series of pictures of the kidneys, urea and uric tracts, and the patient will need to change the position of the body at the command of the radiologist. Then you need to urinate, after which air is pumped into the cavity of the urea, and another series of shots is performed. At the end of the procedure, the catheter is removed from the urethra, the patient can be free.Back to contents
Peculiarities of holding in women and men
The diagnostic procedure of cystography for women is much easier than for men.The point in the structure of the urinary canal. In women, it is wide and of short length, so catheterization does not bring serious discomfort. If cystography is required for men, the physician often chooses the top-down method, in which contrast is introduced as an intravenous injection.Back to contents
Features of kidney cystography in children
If it is required to carry out cystography in a child, it is important for parents to help them prepare, calm. The kid should not worry. If the crumb is inclined to allergic reactions, parents must necessarily warn the doctor about it. In the process of diagnosis, liquid contrast is used, since it affects the body less. 2-3 days before the procedure, you need to adjust the baby's diet and exclude from there products that affect profuse gas generation.
The amount of contrast solution is calculated according to the age category of the child. During the series of pictures, parents can be near the baby, calm him and provide support. If the procedure is assigned to boys, the contrast is administered intravenously, in a descending fashion, as the risk of developing infectious complications is high when ascending.
With the introduction of contrast, children may experience severe pain and discomfort, so the doctor will recommend injecting pain medication or performing a procedure under local anesthesia. It happens that in the process of catheterization, damage to the tissues of the urethra or urea is possible. The child will complain of pain and burning when urinating, while urine will be present with blood inclusions. Parents need to carefully monitor the condition of the crumbs and if on the second or third day the discomfort does not pass and the child becomes worse, it is necessary to go urgently to the hospital, as the complication develops in the body.Back to contents
Complications and consequences
When cystography during the catheterization of the urethra, it can be damaged, while the urine shows blood clots, manifested by a pain symptom.If the injury is superficial, the discomfort will go away within 24 hours, but if a person feels impaired, the symptoms become more severe, you need to see a doctor immediately.
Another dangerous complication is the allergic reaction to the injected contrast medium. In this case, a person may have a rash all over the body, swelling, breathing is broken, loss of consciousness is possible. To prevent dangerous consequences the doctor in the office for diagnosis should always have antiallergic drugs that relieve allergy and normalize the condition.
Exacerbation may occur in the course of acute pyelonephritis, so before the procedure the patient it is recommended to take uroseptics that will help the kidneys function normally and remove excess fluid from the body. If after the procedure a person feels worse, and the illness worsens, you should immediately consult a doctor, since such a condition is dangerous and can lead to death.Back to contents
After the doctor receives the finished pictures, he assesses the condition of the kidneys, reveals pathologies and inconsistencies with the norms. In the first picture, you can determine the topography of the kidneys, in what state other organs are. In pictures with contrast, traumas and other injuries are visible, the presence of neoplasms in the kidneys and other organs. But judging by the external signs, the doctor can preliminarily determine a malignant or benign tumor. With inflammation the kidneys will be enlarged in size, their structure is loose, the tissues become inflamed. In order to make the final diagnosis, the doctor evaluates all the results of the studies and the tests submitted, and after that a treatment regimen is prescribed.
The patient should strictly follow all the doctor's recommendations in preparation for kidney cystography, Only then will it be possible to obtain the most accurate results of cystography and to put the correct diagnosis. If the cystography is carried out in children, parents need to provide maximum comfort to the crumb and support it at all stages of the procedure.