- 1Etiology of cystitis
- 2.1Basic Forms
- 3Causes of Cystitis
- 5Course of the disease
- 6.1Collection of information about the history of the disease
- 6.2Lab tests
- 6.3Instrumental research
7Treatment of the disease
7.1Elimination of the cause
- 7.1.1Drugs for treatment
- 7.2Dietary food
- 7.3Folk therapy
- 7.4Operative treatment
- 7.1Elimination of the cause
- 8Possible complications
Cystitis is a common pathology of the genito-urinary organs. It is important that people know what it is and how to treat cystitis: at home or in the hospital? The fatal danger to human life does not represent the disease, but to turn the existence into a nightmare for a certain period of cystitis is capable.
Inflammation of the bladder is more often complained of by women, a man rarely meets a similar pathology.
Etiology of cystitis
Inflammation of the walls of the bladder is called cystitis. It provokes inflammation of the urinary infection, which is in every organism. What infections cause cystitis? In 95% of cases, the infection of the bladder provokes an E. coli with staphylococcus. In the body, then, and the bladder, the infection infects the surface of the skin or rectum, passing into the urethra.
The following types of cystitis are distinguished by the degree of development:
- Acute. It appears a few hours after the action of the pathogenic factor. The clinic is clearly pronounced. Cystitis is exacerbated by evening.
- Chronic. Often there are cases when the cystitis of this form began after acute pathology. The periods of weakening and worsening of the situation are typical, the symptomatology is less pronounced.
The nature of the occurrence of cystitis is divided into the following types:
- Primary. The form of the disease is not associated with pathologies of internal organs and is considered an independent disease.
- Secondary. Progresses against the background of diseases of internal organs or diseases of the bladder and is divided into subtypes:
- vesicular, when the development was preceded by stones in the urinary or in the kidneys, neoplasm, damage;
- vnepuzyarny, when the basis of provocation - spine trauma, pregnancy, inflammation of the urinary tract.
Considering the causes that caused inflammation of the urinary tract, they subdivide the disease into these types:
- Bacterial, when the cause is bacteria in the bladder (streptococcus, staphylococcus);
- non-bacterial or chlamydial cystitis, when the lesion causes viruses, chlamydia, the herpes virus;
- Chemical - arises from the defeat of the body by acids, alkalis or other chemical solutions.
- Traumatic - appears as a result of herbs, with subsequent infection.
- Parasitic - develops due to damage to the body by parasites.
- Diabetic is the result of exacerbation of diabetes mellitus.
- Postoperative - occurs as a complication after surgical operations.
- Medicinal cystitis - is called as an allergy.
- Children - this form is observed only in childhood.
It is possible to make an accurate diagnosis, taking into account the symptoms of all types and the degree of structural changes in the tissues, which gives a complete picture of the condition of the organ.Back to contents
Causes of Cystitis
The main cause of the inflammation of the urinary tract and the bladder is the bacterium. The pathogenesis of the disease is manifold, the infection in the bladder appears in such directions:
- Ascending, when the colibacillus enters the urethra of the environment. Female urogenital organs are more located to the penetration of bacteria along the ascending path than in men, because of the peculiarities of the anatomical structure.
- Through the blood - in the presence of purulent foci in the human body.
- Through the lymphatic vessels, the infection penetrates when there are inflammatory processes in the organs of the genitourinary system.
In addition to infection, there are non-infectious infection provokers:
- allergic reaction;
- disorders in the immune and nervous systems;
- consequences of radiation therapy.
There are a number of factors that can provoke inflammation of the mucous membrane of the urea:
- sedentary work (sedentary lifestyle);
- narrow underwear;
- illegibility in sexual intercourse (each partner - a potential carrier of viruses, fungi, infections);
- non-observance of hygiene rules;
- urolithiasis disease;
- chronic diseases of the urogenital system.
The onset of symptoms is vivid. By the picture that appeared in the middle of the night, it's easy to find out the disease. The first signs are frequent urge to urinate. With a complex form, they become frequent up to a couple of minutes in the daytime and even at night. It becomes difficult to keep urinating, there are attacks of dizziness. Often night is a difficult test for patients. With the rapid development of the process or the untimely use of treatment,
- pain when urinating;
- pain in the lower abdomen (as a complication, pain in the kidneys);
- burning sensation;
- urine becomes turbid;
- there is a strong, unpleasant odor of excreted urine;
- possible subfebrile temperature (a sudden increase in temperature indicates a complication) and dizziness.
Course of the disease
The acute form of the disease always begins suddenly, after exposure to the organism of predisposing factors. The nature of the development of the above described symptoms in each person may differ. In some cases, unpleasant feelings accompany the patient for 2-3 days and disappear on their own. Basically, from the onset of the manifestation of symptoms to recovery is from 6 to 10 days. Chronic inflammation of the bladder mucosa can accompany a person throughout life with alternating periods of remission and exacerbation.Back to contents
In most cases, with an acute form to confirm that the bladder is inflamed specialist is not difficult. This is due to the vivid symptoms of cystitis. At the initial stage and with a chronic course during diagnosis, difficulties may arise due to the blurred picture. Diagnosis involves several methods of complex examination.Back to contents
Collection of information about the history of the disease
Acquaintance with the symptoms of cystitis and determining the nature of the manifestation becomes the main task of the urologist at the first diagnostic stage. The specialist specifies the symptoms, the nature of their manifestation. Particular attention is paid to information on the number of urination, the presence of imperative urges and physical characteristics of urine.Back to contents
Samples are given for clarification of the current changes in the indicators characterizing the disease:
- Blood test. Special changes are not observed. But thanks to the analysis, the presence of the inflammatory process is determined.
- Analysis of urine. The color is evaluated, the density, the number of leukocytes and red blood cells are determined.
- Conducting a urine test with the help of an indicator strip allows to determine the presence of leukocytes, nitrites and protein;
- Urine sowing is necessary to determine the causative agents of cystitis (the presence of a virus or bacteria).
Visual methods for determining pathology:
- Cystoscopy. Using a cystoscope, the bladder and urethra are examined. Use this method of research is possible only in the chronic form of the disease.
- Ultrasound of the urethra, urethra and kidney. During the examination, the shape, size of the organs is assessed, and the presence of background pathologies is checked.
Women additionally undergo examination at the gynecologist, confirming or refuting sex infections - infection with chlamydia, candidiasis, trichomoniasis, gonorrhea, ureaplasmosis.Back to contents
Treatment of the disease
For the treatment of cystitis requires constant monitoring, but there is no need to stay in the hospital. Therapy is performed on an outpatient basis, with strict adherence to bed rest. To cure a cystitis at acceptance by the expert of the right decision the problem uncomplicated. Surgical treatment of cystitis consists of improving the general condition of the patient and eliminating the cause that caused inflammation of the bladder.Back to contents
Elimination of the cause
Microbes that penetrated the body as a result of weakened immunity - the main provoker of the disease. The task of treating cystitis is to eliminate the influence of the provocateur. An effective result provides comprehensive treatment of cystitis, which includes therapy with medicines, folk methods and dietary nutrition.Back to contents
Drugs for treatment
A cystitis treatment regimen that effectively cures inflammation of the bladder and eliminates streptococcus, staphylococcus, includes:
- Antibacterial drugs, as the main component of therapy:
- "Monural" - an antibiotic that does not have contraindications for cystitis, is considered universal and suitable for pregnant, elderly people. The course of treatment with the drug is convenient because it is enough to take one sachet to achieve a positive result.
- "Nitrofurantoin." Not as convenient as the first. The drug has minor side effects and limitations in admission. Powder should be drunk for a week several times a day.
- Ciprofloxacin. Widely not used, because the microbe quickly acquires resistance to the drug, and the number of side effects from tablets is not a little.
- Anti-inflammatory drugs.
- Immunostimulating tablets.
Do not underestimate the importance of diet in the treatment of urinary tract infections. Its main task is to create favorable and mitigating conditions that allow the body to function smoothly. The main recommendations for cystitis:
- From the diet is to remove sharp, salty foods, alcohol.
- It is necessary to monitor the amount of liquid consumed. The more water is drunk, the faster the concentration of microbes in the urine will decrease.
At the first signs of cystitis, when there are no pronounced symptoms, herbal medicine will help prevent the intensification of the processes in the inflamed organs.With a strong inflammatory process, folk remedies can be treated as an adjunct to therapy, and only after consulting a specialist.Self-treatment of cystitis is unacceptable, it can result in complications.
Common remedies that help cure the bladder:
- If the urea inflamed, it is effective to do with cystitis to make warm herbal baths using chamomile. Chamomile helps to relieve inflammation. The brewed grass is filtered and added to warm water (hot water will aggravate the situation). Take a bath for 30 minutes.
- The freshly squeezed cranberry juice helps cystitis. The course of treatment is simple - a couple of cups of juice and the first manifestations of the disease go away.
- You can treat the bladder with the help of herbal medicines, which are sold in the pharmacy chain.
If not one of the methods of therapy could not cure inflammation of the urinary, the last one remains to do the operation. The doctor resorts to surgery only if he is satisfied that there is no better method (in a specific situation). There are several ways to cure cystitis in adults with the help of surgery:
- removal of benign neoplasms in the bladder that causes inflammation;
- removal of part of the affected neck of the bladder;
- plastic surgery in women for the transfer of the urethra;
- use of the episthotomy;
- removal of part of the bladder.
Inflamed urea in an acute condition is treated for 10 days. Prolonged illness, refusal to treat the inflamed organ leads to the fact that cystitis affects the condition, worsening the state of health, and leads to the development of complications such as:
- dysfunction of the sphincter, as a consequence of incontinence, due to the transition to a chronic form;
- development of the inflammatory process in the kidneys;
- change of deep tissue of the body;
- development of infertility in women.
Simple preventive measures will help to protect the urinary tract from the development of the disease. First of all, you must avoid hypothermia, monitor your personal hygiene and choose the correct underwear. A healthy lifestyle, a sufficient amount of fluid, regular visits to the toilet and timely access to a doctor will help to maintain health.