In our society, a prejudiced attitude towards fats has taken root. At the mention of this word, negative associations automatically arise. So do fats like this have to do with themselves? Take at least blood, the most important biological substance, which transfers oxygen and nutrients to the organs and tissues. It would seem that the fats are not there. Meanwhile, everything is not quite so.
- Fats: the reverse side of the medal
- "Bad" and "good" cholesterol
- Briefly about the lipidogram
- Decoding of the lipidogram
- Norms of values of the lipidogram
- The coefficient of atherogenicity
- Lipidogram indices separately. Signs of atherosclerosis
Fats: the reverse side of the medal
Unfortunately, we will have to add a little bit of the retouching to this gracious picture, presented in the paragraph above. The connection between high cholesterol in the blood and cardiovascular pathology was noticed by scientists more than a quarter of a century ago. Surpluses of cholesterol have a bad property to settle on an internal wall of blood vessels, interfering with normal blood supply of organs and tissues. This is called atherosclerosis. Violated the activity of the most important organs: the heart and brain, which can lead to sad consequences in the form of heart attacks and strokes. Such a two-faced this cholesterol.
"Bad" and "good" cholesterolYou can not live in modern society and never hear about the fact that cholesterol is "bad" and "good". The first group includes cholesterol fractions, called low density lipoproteins (LDL), and the second - high (HDL). It is LDL that forms in the vascular walls atherosclerotic plaques, which reduce the lumen of the vessel. This makes blood flow difficult, which leads to the development of heart failure. LPVN on the contrary, is a carrier of "bad" cholesterol in the liver, which prevents it from accumulating on the walls of the vessels. In the liver, cholesterol is involved in the cycle of biochemical processes and is used for "peaceful" needs, which have already been written above.
What does it say? What is cholesterol is different from cholesterol. And the total content of cholesterol in the blood will not be indicative at all. In two people, cholesterol can be equally elevated, but its qualitative "layout" will be different. And those who have higher levels of HDL, will be in a much better position. To get an accurate idea of the cholesterol content, it is necessary to investigate the whole spectrum of cholesterol fractions, i.e. to make a lipidogram.
Briefly about the lipidogram
Lipidogram or blood test for cholesterol includes 4 indicators: total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglycerides (the latter consists of the majority of adipose tissue). To perform the analysis in the morning on an empty stomach is taken venous blood. Before taking the test, you should not take food for 6-8 hours (which is not so difficult to do, given that the blood surrenders in the morning). A few days before the test is done, it is necessary to limit physical activity and not to lean on fatty foods (the last recommendation can in principle be in effect all the time).
Decoding of the lipidogram
Norms of values of the lipidogram
First we give the values of the lipidogram in the norm:
- Total cholesterol - from, to, mmol / l;
- HDL - more, 8 mmol / l in women and, 2 mmol / L in men;
- LDL-less, mmol / l;
- Triglycerides - from, 4 to, 2 mmol / l.
The coefficient of atherogenicity
In addition to the above indices, the lipidogram makes it possible to calculate the so-called coefficient atherogenicity, which is the ratio of the difference between total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol (KA = (total cholesterol - HDL) / HDL). If the result is less than 3, this indicates a high content of "good" cholesterol in the blood and a minimum risk of atherosclerosis. If this coefficient is 3-4, then the risk of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease is already present, and if it is greater than 5, then atherosclerosis, as they say, is in full swing.
Lipidogram indices separately. Signs of atherosclerosis
If the content in the blood of LDL is higher, mmol / L, then this is atherosclerosis. Boundary values are considered, mmol / l.
Sign of the presence of atherosclerosis is also a low content of HDL: lower, 6 mmol / L in men and less, mmol / L in women. A high level of HDL cholesterol (above those we indicated as normal) indicates a minimal risk of atherosclerosis and ischemia. Boundary values range from 6 to 8 mmol / L in men and from, to, mmol / L in women.