Symptoms and causes of scoliosis


  • Characteristics of the disease
  • Causes of the disease
  • Main features
  • Classification of the disease
  • Stages of scoliosis
  • Symptoms and Treatment
  • What is needed for prevention?

Many modern people move little, spend a long time at the computer, without making the necessary breaks. This style of life often leads to deformation of the spine, and people are showing signs of scoliosis.

The disease is subject to all age categories, but most often it affects schoolchildren from 7 to 14 years.

Characteristics of the disease

Scoliosis doctors call a serious pathology of the spine. It is characterized by the curvature of the spine and the rotation of some vertebrae in different directions. This deforms the chest, the shoulders become uneven.

The name of the disease in Greek means "curvature". This is the most accurate characteristic of scoliosis. It manifests itself mainly in children and progresses in the pubertal period. When the body stops growing intensively, the spine's condition ceases to worsen, but pathological changes do not go away, continuing to cause many problems.

A healthy spine has certain bends in the lumbar and cervical regions. If they were not there, people would not be able to move normally and do physical work. They reduce the load on the axis of the skeleton during walking, running, lifting heavy objects. These smooth curves can not be seen. If you look at the back of a healthy person, you can see a straight line of the spine. In the case of curvature, in most cases, the asymmetry is visible to the unaided eye.

With the development of scoliosis, it is difficult not to notice the symptoms. It is necessary urgently to address to the doctor and start treatment. Progressive disease leads to many complications. In patients, the thorax decreases, the work of the heart, liver and lungs is disrupted. It becomes difficult to carry out sports loads. In rare cases, the female reproductive system may suffer.

Causes of the disease

The factors due to which the disease develops are not known for certain. It is believed that the onset of scoliosis is often affected by hereditary predisposition and congenital defects such as:

  • underdevelopment of the muscular framework;
  • unequal length of legs;
  • violation of calcium metabolism;
  • deformation of the spine or thorax.

The main cause of curvature is incorrect posture, in which the load on the spine is distributed unevenly. A serious enemy of a flat back is a habit of slouching, unwillingness to play sports or perform heavy physical exercises without proper preparation.

Often, scoliosis occurs as a result of spinal injuries, under the influence of spinal hernia, transferred poliomyelitis and various infectious diseases. Hypertension of the dorsal muscles and constant spasms promote the displacement of the spine to the left or right side and lead to scoliosis and osteochondrosis.

The causes of scoliosis in each patient are identified individually. This work involved orthopedists, neurologists and traumatologists.

Main features

If you suspect close people's violation of posture, you need to take immediate action. To find out the condition of the spine and to detect signs of scoliosis, you can conduct a small test at home. To do this, a person should take off his clothes, pick up a comfortable flat place and get up there. Hands need to relax and lower down, the back should be leveled, trying not to strain the muscles. In this situation, you need to make a close inspection of the spine and the whole body.

  • Look closely at the location of the ears. If they are not symmetrical to each other, for example, one above, and the other below, then we can assume the curvature of the cervical vertebrae. Study the neck carefully. Its axis must coincide with the rest of the spine.
  • Count 7 vertebrae from the top. It is located just below the neck and protrudes more than the other vertebrae. Prepare in advance a strong thread about a meter long, to which you attach a small load. Press the thread to the vertebrae and hold it with your fingers. She under the influence of the load will hang down evenly along the spine, and pass between the buttocks. Any deviation of the filament from the spine allows one to suspect the development of scoliosis.
  • On the health of the back much can say the shoulder blades. Tilt your back. If the shoulder blades are too bulging, they look asymmetrical, this is an occasion to make an appointment with a doctor for examination.
  • Carefully examine the person's torso. His back should look even. In the absence of curvature, the shoulders are at the same height, the waist is symmetrical.

Having found the slightest deviations, it is required, without wasting time, to go to the polyclinic. Self align the back will not work. Unskilful actions can aggravate the situation and increase the curvature. Treatment is selected individually for each patient, so without the help of an experienced orthopedist can not do. If the disease is found in the rudiment, it can be completely eliminated by special exercises.

Classification of the disease

With scoliosis of the spine, the symptoms are manifested not only in visual deformation of the back, but also in severe headaches and discomfort in the lower back. The disease is divided into several types:

  • Scoliosis of the cervical spine - it is characterized by asymmetry of the shoulders and frequent migraines;
  • scoliosis of the thoracic region - it is accompanied by an asymmetric arrangement of scapula and changes in the thorax;
  • Scoliosis of the lumbar region - manifested by curvature in the lower back and pain.

The easiest way to treat lumbar scoliosis. He is not the cause of the appearance of a hump on his back and does not disrupt the work of the heart and lungs.

Experts classify the disease in the form of curvature. The spine deforms into the right or left side. At an early stage, one arc of curvature is formed. This scoliosis is called C-shaped. It should be noted that the displacement of the axis of the spine to the right is diagnosed 3 times more often than to the left.

When two arcs of curvature appear in the spine, the scoliosis form begins to resemble the Latin letter S, so it is called S-shaped. A sign of the started scoliosis is the formation of three arcs of curvature. They are classified by the letter Z.

Stages of scoliosis

The severity of the disease is divided into 4 stages. They are determined by the angle to which the spine deviates from its axis.

  • The first stage is characterized by the C-shaped form of the arch of the spine. The angle of curvature varies from 5 to 10 degrees. On the eye it is difficult to recognize. The patient has no external signs of displacement of the vertebrae and the pathology of the chest. For timely diagnosis, it is necessary to make an X-ray in a supine position.
  • In the second stage, the second arc of curvature is usually formed, and the spine assumes an S-shape. The angle of deviation from the norm is from 5 to 25 degrees. The defeat of the back is visible to the unaided eye. The patient can see a rib hump and a muscular cushion.
  • When the disease goes to the third stage, the angle of deflection increases to 40 degrees. There is a persistent deformation of the chest, the work of the organs is disrupted.
  • At the fourth stage, the curvature takes a terrifying size and reaches 50 degrees. The consequences of this deformation affect the entire body. The nervous system suffers, the heart and other organs work intermittently. Intervertebral discs are greatly affected. This leads to the fact that the vertebral canal narrows, and the roots of the spinal cord become entangled.

Determine the angle of deviation of the spine from the norm is only possible by the doctor, having studied the patient's x-ray. On it, the specialist discovers the most protruding part of the spine and unchanged vertebrae located at the top and bottom. Through these points the ruler draws lines and uses the protractor to determine the angle of curvature.

Symptoms and Treatment

At the initial stage of the disease, anxiety symptoms usually do not bother. Gradually, the curvature increases, and the person begins to stoop. The asymmetry of the shoulders and shoulder blades is becoming noticeable.

If you do not urgently begin treatment, there is shortness of breath and a persistent cough. In especially severe cases, painful sensations are observed in the region of the heart.

Common scoliosis symptoms:

  • headache. It progresses as a result of the squeezing of the blood vessels that supply blood to the brain. Strengthen the flow of blood and relieve spasm of muscles using physiotherapy, warming up ointments, exercises to improve neck mobility and eliminate scoliosis. They must be used as directed by the doctor;
  • back pain. Most often, they worry about scoliosis of the lumbar spine. To correct the situation can massage sessions, classes in the pool, the refusal of excessive physical exertion.

Doctors urgently require that when symptoms appear, do not hesitate, and immediately go for help. Treatment of scoliosis is important to start, until the second stage of the disease has ended. Patients have a long daily therapy, because only in this way can prevent the progression of the disease and prevent the defeat of internal organs.

  • Therapeutic gymnastics is selected individually. The patient needs such exercises, when performing a complete unloading of the spine, improving blood supply in the affected area.
  • Gradually, they are added to exercise for endurance, to strengthen the muscular corset and support the spine in the right position.
  • Well helps to combat the curvature of the back breathing exercises. Therapeutic breathing spreads the thorax, strengthens intercostal and vertebral muscles.

For the treatment, the age of the patient is of paramount importance. Since the disease most often develops in children, it needs to be identified and treated before the onset of sexual development. During this period, adolescents grow intensively, which leads to a rapid increase in curvature. If this is allowed, getting rid of the disease will be much more difficult.

What is needed for prevention?

To avoid the development of the disease, you need to start prevention in childhood. It is important to explain to the child that he needs a healthy body, so you need to adhere to certain life rules.

  • Do not slouch, sit at the desk.
  • During the use of the computer every 15 minutes to interrupt the mobile games.
  • Daily do morning exercises, visit the sports section.
  • Remove the fast food from the diet and include healthy food enriched with vitamins. This will help prevent obesity, which gives a strong strain on the spine and promotes scoliosis.

In addition, it is recommended to sleep on a hard mattress that does not allow the back to flex during rest, and to treat injuries and back injuries in a timely manner. Then in the future you will not have to fight with scoliosis.

If the disease is still diagnosed, do not despair. Address to the competent expert, carry out all its recommendations, be engaged in physiotherapy exercises. This will help restore a smooth posture and health.

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