Lyme diseaseIs a bacterial disease,transmitted through interaction with an infected tick. Still these insects are called reindeer mites. These insects are carriers of the Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria and transmit it to humansthrough a bite.
Bacteria of Lyme disease are found in mice, proteins and other rodents and small mammals. Ticks take this bacterium from animals and then can pass it to a person. In order for the disease to be transmitted and "activated"The tick must remain in the human body for 24-36 hours.
IfLyme diseasenot diagnose in time, it can cause several health problems. But if you take the appropriate measures in a timely manner, on the contrary, the disease can be completely cured. Whatever it was, according to statistics, most people bitten by ticks, do not become infected with Lyme disease.
Lyme disease: the initial stages
Lyme disease develops in three stages.The difference between them determines the time during which the tick remains "attached" to the human body. This, in turn, determines the degree of spread of bacteria in the body. So three steps:
- Stage 1 or early, localized Lyme disease. At this stage, the bacteria have not yet spread.
- Stage 2, or early distribution.When the bacteria begin to spread, 36-48 hours after the bite.
- Step 3, or later distribution.Corresponds to the phase in which the bacteria have already spread throughout the body.
The first symptoms
The first symptoms of Lyme disease appear a few days after infection with this infection. In some patients, the symptomatology is stretched for several weeks. It is similar to the pattern of influenza and usuallyincludes such signs,as:
- Pain in the joints
- Muscle pain
- Neck Stiffness
- Increased body temperature and chills
- General malaise and fatigue
- Swollen lymph nodes
More oftenthere is redness, flat or slightly convex, it appears at the site of the bite. In the center of the lesion, a lighter area is noticeable. It turns a bit like a bull's eye. This inflammation is called migrating erythema, and it can appear in various parts of the body. It does not pass for 4 weeks, if not treated at all..
Symptoms of early and late spreading
Initial symptoms may appear and disappear. If you do not treat Lyme disease, serious health problems can begin.When the disease reaches Stage 2, or early spread, other symptoms usually appear,such as:
- Chest pain
- Difficulty breathing
- Paralysis of facial muscles
- Rigidity and pain in the nerve
- Irregular heartbeat
When the disease reaches Stage 3, the symptoms may become worse,In addition, complications may occur:
- Arthritis. It manifests itself in pain in swollen joints, mainly in the knees.
- Neurological problems.These include meningitis, Bell's paralysis (facial muscles) and pain or numbness in the limbs. Cognitive difficulties and sleeping problems may also occur.
- Heart problems. As a rule, this irregular heartbeat, which after a few days comes back to normal.
In some cases,especially severe symptoms: eye inflammation, hepatitis,severe fatigue. This happens months or even years after infection.
Diagnosis and predictions
The most commonDiagnosis by means of a blood test, its name is the ELISA test (or ELISA) for Lyme disease. However, it is possible that at the early stage of the disease the result will be negative, although an infection in the body is present. The same can happen if antibiotics are introduced at the initial stages.
Often a doctor can diagnose simply on the basis of symptoms. This information in conjunction with the data on the terrain, where there was contact with mites, allows to diagnose Lyme disease. At later stages, other tests are performed, such as an electrocardiogram, MRI, echocardiography and spinal puncture.
If you start treatment in the early stages, then it has an excellent prognosis.When the disease progresses, the patient can continue to experience symptoms, sometimes very severe. In some cases, symptoms such as arthritis or changes in the heart rate become chronic.