- Why does a cold appear?
- Factors contributing to the development of colds
- Main symptoms
- Runny nose
- Pain and sore throat
- Increased temperature
- Chest Pain
People call the common cold a list of acute respiratory diseases, which develop under the influence of numerous pathogens. These bacteria and viruses are spread all over the place.
Many people believe that the common cold is not dangerous to health, so resorting to medical care is not necessary. Most are seriously convinced that the ailment arises from the usual hypothermia. Some desperate workaholics do not comply with bed rest during the course of the disease, preferring not to break away from work. However, we must not forget that its cause is always an infection.
In the absence of proper treatment, the common cold threatens with serious complications that require complex therapy in stationary conditions. It is important to know the symptoms of colds in order to start treatment on time.
Why does a cold appear?
According to statistics, adults suffer from colds about 3 times a year, children - about 4-5, and preschool children - from 6 or more. In 1 - 40% of cases, depending on the age of the patient, timeliness of treatment and characteristics of the pathogen, a fatal outcome is possible.
Typically, the source of infection is an infected person, less often - a bacterium or a carrier of the virus.In the first days of illness the patient should limit contact with others, because during this period he is especially contagious.
In order to catch a cold, it is enough that the mucosa of the nasopharynx, mouth, eyes hit the pathogen. When sneezing or coughing, the patient spreads a huge number of microbes, which are transmitted by airborne droplets.
Sometimes the disease develops by means of a contact-household method.
Disease-creating microorganisms can exist for a long time on various objects and surfaces.
Factors contributing to the development of colds
The disease always develops in connection with a decrease in the protective functions of the body. Deterioration of immunity in the oral cavity and nasopharynx occurs in stressful situations, frequent colds, hypothermia - all this creates the most favorable conditions for the dwelling of the virus.
Severe forms of the disease are especially affected by small children (up to 3 years old), elderly people, patients with chronic pathologies or immunodeficiency (blood diseases, oncology, HIV).
Symptoms of the disease are similar to those of SARS and influenza. The main difference is the lack of heat and too high temperature indicators. The course of the disease will not be so acute in comparison with viral ARI. Let us consider in more detail what symptoms are caused by a cold.
Since the development of the disease is often associated with hypothermia, the first sign that worries a patient is chills. The patient trembles and can not keep warm. Along with this, there is sometimes a strong internal heat.
Such a sign arises due to hypothermia or attack of pathogenic bacteria. Runny nose is an indicator that an inflammatory process is occurring in the body. In the nose, there will be a slight tingling sensation.
Zalozhennost is both an independent symptom of the common cold, and an initial indicator, which later passes into the mucus edema or rhinorrhea. As a rule, at this time the body triggers a protection mechanism - sneezing. With his help, the nose is cleansed of mucus and pathogens.
The rhinitis caused by viruses, is accompanied by transparent excretions with a viscous consistence. Bacterial infections lead to the formation of mucus with a yellowish or greenish tinge. To treat a cold is necessary with the help of regular cleansing of nasal passages. Before using any chemotherapy drugs, consult a doctor.
Many people do not see anything dangerous in the cold. This is true, but in some cases complications develop:
- sinusitis - inflammation of the maxillary sinuses;
- frontal - inflammation of the frontal sinuses.
In the presence of such complications, the patient will feel pain in the bridge of the nose or on both sides of the nose. There is more pronounced nasal obstruction, nasal voices. It is not necessary to delay with the reference to the qualified expert as complications demand correct timely treatment.
Pain and sore throat
Colds cause first uncomfortable sensations in the throat, then perspiration and, finally, pain. It always increases with swallowing. Minor pain, as a rule, is characteristic for a viral infection, intensive pains for a bacterial infection. Upon examination, reddening of the posterior pharyngeal wall, arches, and tongue is found.Tonsils not only acquire a crimson color, but also increase in size.
If bacteria are the source of the common cold, a whitish-yellow coating appears on the tonsils. At first it is located by separate islands, which later merge. If such overlaps are found, it is worthwhile to consult a doctor, since the inflammatory process can cause swelling of the pharynx and difficulty breathing. The specialist will accurately identify the symptoms and treatment, which will help much faster cope with the disease and prevent the development of complications.
Such a symptom is the most common for a cold. The temperature rises to 37 - 37.5 degrees. If the thermometer is 38 ° or more, it is an indicator of a viral infection. In many ways, the temperature depends on the state of the human immune system.
Especially dangerous are high rates (40 - 41 °), because they can lead to serious complications: in children - to neurotoxicosis, in adults - to edema of the brain, accompanied by loss of consciousness, a decrease pressure. Especially dangerous is the development of colds for the elderly, as well as for toddlers, whose age has not reached 3 years.
Experts believe that, while maintaining high rates for more than three days, we can talk about the development of complications, or about the presence of some other disease, not the common cold.
In order to prevent the temperature rise to critical values (-39 and above), it is necessary to take antipyretics prescribed by the doctor and regularly make measurements. A dangerous symptom is an increased excitability at a temperature of 40 °. Children in a similar situation develops a convulsive syndrome, leading to a loss of consciousness.
In some cases, there is a cold without fever.
Infection is always accompanied by signs of intoxication of the body: general malaise, lethargy, decreased efficiency, weakness, nausea, muscle pain, worsening appetite. The last of these symptoms is typical for influenza, when toxic pathogens of infection begin to affect the tissues.
The power of such signs depends on the level of the temperature reaction.
When the fever is reduced, the symptoms will also decrease. Patients can help themselves by using a special diet and drinking regimen.
They occur quite often with colds. Pain sensations can be localized, for example, on the forehead or in the region of the temples, and can be intense, widespread. In the presence of complications of the common cold (frontal sinusitis, sinusitis), persistent aching pains are felt in the forehead and nose area.
Colds are accompanied by a dry or wet cough. The latter is characterized by the presence of sputum, which, depending on the pathogen infection, it is transparent, greenish or yellowish.
Dry cough in most cases is a sign of flu. The greatest danger for such a symptom is for young children who have not attained the age of 2 to 3 years, since it may indicate a so-called "false croup".With inflammation and swelling of the larynx, its lumen is able to narrow, resulting in insufficient intake of air.As a result, the child will begin to choke. Usually this complication develops in the evening or at night, requires qualified medical care. It is for this reason that cough is treated from an early age only under the supervision of a specialist.
Categorically, it is not recommended to use cough suppressant medications at their own discretion. Improperly selected drugs can cause a person to stagnate inflammation, which can move to the lower sections of the lungs and contribute to the development of pneumonia.
More often unpleasant sensations in a breast arise at a cough because of the loadings falling on intercostal muscles.
Pain in the depth of the chest with deep breaths and cough may indicate inflammation of the lungs, so you need to carefully monitor your own health.
Sharp discomfort is often a consequence of the inflammatory process in the lung tissue. It is important to remember that any unpleasant sensations in the chest area are an occasion to call a doctor.
What sign of a cold will be a signal to see a doctor? Qualified assistance is needed urgently in the following cases:
- development of the disease in children under the age of 3;
- headaches, which have a pulsating character;
- the development of a rash on the body and limbs;
- high temperature, which does not decrease for 3 days;
- advanced patient age (over 65 years);
- pain in the chest with coughing and deep sighs, severe lethargy and fatigue;
- development of the common cold on the background of pathologies of the cardiovascular system, liver and kidneys.
Even such a simple and seemingly non-serious disease, like a cold, can cause great harm to the body in the absence of quality timely treatment..